SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and Its Operations
A centralized, computer monitoring and controlling system that is utilized for plant sites which are located at a long distance is referred to as SCADA system. Because of its unique software application, which is managing any type of equipment by automation, companies with complex operations processes, like water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining, transportation, telecommunications industries, employ the SCADA system to automate their operations, detect and correct problems, at the same time, and measure trends over time. In order for the SCADA system meet its objective of monitoring and controlling a company's operating process, the system first collects data and analyze them.
The following are the main function components of the 61850 gateway SCADA system: data acquisition, network data communication, data presentation, and control. The SCADA system is made up of the following: sensors and control relays, Remote Telemetry Units (RTUs), master units, and a communication network, which consists of input/output signal hardware, networks, Human-machine Interface (HMI), controllers, communication, database, and software, for it to perform its functions.
Two types of devices, of which either one is employed, that are usually connected to the SCADA system to perform its control functions and these are: RTUs or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Between these two devices, it is the RTUs which has a more advanced functionality feature allowing for a more efficient and secure monitoring system. Read on at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data.
HMI serves as the master station that communicates all of the analyzed operations data and collected information to the human operator. The HMI functions allow for an easy viewing by the operators on the system alarms and information, thereby making it also easy for the operators to make quick decisions. Since the company's operation processes, which the SCADA system is managing, are confidential, for security reasons, SCADA information are kept on closed LAN (Local Area Network) or WAN (Wide Area Network) networks to prevent sensitive data from being exposed to outsiders over the Internet.
Because of the expensive cost of utilizing LAN, another network support system through NetGuardian 832A may be employed which can support existing communications methods at remote sites, instead of LAN. In the future, if the company expands their LAN network into their other remote sites, the cost will still be worth the expansion investment as there will be savings by the company on RTU replacements, which are usually employed to support the new network.
The following are the overview functions and features of the SCADA system, depending on what specific features a company desires to employ: performs the work of an OPC Server or Protocol Translator, translate between any number of available protocols, includes a protocol analyzer, built in equation editor supports the creation of new data points based on raw data points and /or other equation points, OPC Certified, Conformance tested per DNP3 Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) Certification Procedure Subset Level2, report by Exception (RBE) is supported (transmitting only data changes, saving communication channel bandwidth), supports DNP3 Secure Authentication, supports selective logging of event data into a time-stamped Sequence of Events (SOE) log file, the Communication Protocol Analyzer Window displays and decodes transmitted and received messages, allows translation between data types and control methods from different protocols, supports mapping of points between Master and Slave, two Master, and/or two Slave protocol components. Read more about this certain 60870 test.